Deformation Processing

Deformation is forming the solid material into shape by applying forces to it. Because the material is in the solid state, the forces required are high and for this reason, metals with very high yield stresses are deformed hot. However, many commonly used metals can be deformed at room temperature eliminating the need for expensive heating equipment. The most well known deformation processes are forging, rolling and extrusion, which can produce components of a variety of shapes. Forming sheets into various shapes is also a type of deformation processes. Cold forming gives a better surface finish than hot forming and cold-formed parts generally have a higher yield strength than those that are hot-formed because the work hardening is retained.

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